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Old 09-29-2009, 07:55 AM   #1
Darryl Shaw
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Join Date: Apr 2008
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Default Nuts.

Nut consumption and body weight.


Frequent nut consumption is associated with lower rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). Also, nut-rich diets improve the serum lipid profile of participants in dietary intervention trials. However, nuts are fatty foods, and in theory their regular consumption may lead to body weight gain. Because obesity is a major public health problem and a risk factor for CAD, clinicians and policy makers ponder several questions. Will hypercholesterolemic patients advised to consume nuts gain weight? Is recommending increased nut consumption to the general population for CAD prevention sound public health advice? Epidemiologic studies indicate an inverse association between frequency of nut consumption and body mass index. In well-controlled nut-feeding trials, no changes in body weight were observed. Some studies on free-living subjects in which no constraints on body weight are imposed show a nonsignificant tendency to lower weight while subjects are on the nut diets. In another line of evidence, preliminary data indicate that subjects on nut-rich diets excrete more fat in stools. Further research is needed to study the effects of nut consumption on energy balance and body weight. In the meantime, the available cumulative data do not indicate that free-living people on self-selected diets including nuts frequently have a higher body mass index or a tendency to gain weight.


Impact of Peanuts and Tree Nuts on Body Weight and Healthy Weight Loss in Adults.


Nuts (ground and tree) are rich sources of multiple nutrients and their consumption is associated with health benefits, including reduced cardiovascular disease risk. This has prompted recommendations to increase their consumption. However, they are also high in fat (albeit largely unsaturated) and are energy dense. The associations between these properties, positive energy balance, and body weight raise questions about such recommendations. This issue is addressed through a review of the literature pertaining to the association between nut consumption and energy balance. Epidemiological studies document an inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and BMI. Clinical trials reveal little or no weight change with inclusion of various types of nuts in the diet over 1–6 mo. Mechanistic studies indicate this is largely attributable to the high satiety property of nuts, leading to compensatory responses that account for 65–75% of the energy they provide. Limited data suggest chronic consumption is associated with elevated resting energy expenditure resulting in dissipation of another portion of the energy they provide. Additionally, due to poor bioaccessibility, there is limited efficiency of energy absorption from nuts. Collectively, these mechanisms offset much of the energy provided by nuts. The few trials contrasting weight loss through regimens that include or exclude nuts indicate improved compliance and greater weight loss when nuts are permitted. This consistent literature suggests nuts may be included in the diet, in moderation, to enhance palatability and nutrient quality without posing a threat for weight gain.


Nuts and coronary heart disease: an epidemiological perspective.


The epidemiological evidence for the cardio-protective effect of nut consumption is presented and reviewed. Four large prospective epidemiological studies of primary prevention of coronary heart disease are reviewed and discussed (Adventist Health Study, Iowa Women's Health Study, Nurses' Health Study and the Physicians' Health Study). Other studies of nuts and coronary heart disease risk are addressed. The combined evidence for a cardio-protective effect from nut consumption is summarized and presented graphically. The risk of coronary heart disease is 37 % lower for those consuming nuts more than four times per week compared to those who never or seldom consume nuts, with an average reduction of 8·3 % for each weekly serving of nuts. The evidence for a causal relationship between nut consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease is outlined using Hill's criteria for causality and is found to support a causal cardio-protective relationship.


A Systematic Review of the Effects of Nuts on Blood Lipid Profiles in Humans.


The inverse association of nut consumption and risk markers of coronary heart disease (lipids) has sparked the interest of the scientific and lay community. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the effects of nuts on the lipid profile. Medline and Web of Science databases were searched from the start of the database to August 2004 and supplemented by cross-checking reference lists of relevant publications. Human intervention trials with the objective of investigating independent effects of nuts on lipid concentrations were included. From the literature search, 415 publications were screened and 23 studies were included. These papers received a rating based upon the methodology as it appeared in the publication. No formal statistical analysis was performed due to the large differences in study designs of the dietary intervention trials. The results of 3 almond (50–100 g/d), 2 peanut (35–68 g/d), 1 pecan nut (72 g/d), and 4 walnut (40–84 g/d) studies showed decreases in total cholesterol between 2 and 16% and LDL cholesterol between 2 and 19% compared with subjects consuming control diets. Consumption of macadamia nuts (50–100 g/d) produced less convincing results. In conclusion, consumption of 50–100 g (1.5–3.5 servings) of nuts 5 times/wk as part of a heart-healthy diet with total fat content (high in mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids) of 35% of energy may significantly decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in normo- and hyperlipidemic individuals.


The Role of Tree Nuts and Peanuts in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease: Multiple Potential Mechanisms.


Epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence has demonstrated consistent benefits of nut and peanut consumption on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk and associated risk factors. The epidemiologic studies have reported various endpoints, including fatal CHD, total CHD death, total CHD, and nonfatal myocardial infarct. A pooled analysis of 4 U.S. epidemiologic studies showed that subjects in the highest intake group for nut consumption had an 35% reduced risk of CHD incidence. The reduction in total CHD death was due primarily to a decrease in sudden cardiac death. Clinical studies have evaluated the effects of many different nuts and peanuts on lipids, lipoproteins, and various CHD risk factors, including oxidation, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Evidence from these studies consistently shows a beneficial effect on these CHD risk factors. The LDL cholesterol-lowering response of nut and peanut studies is greater than expected on the basis of blood cholesterol-lowering equations that are derived from changes in the fatty acid profile of the diet. Thus, in addition to a favorable fatty acid profile, nuts and peanuts contain other bioactive compounds that explain their multiple cardiovascular benefits. Other macronutrients include plant protein and fiber; micronutrients including potassium, calcium, magnesium, and tocopherols; and phytochemicals such as phytosterols, phenolic compounds, resveratrol, and arginine. Nuts and peanuts are food sources that are a composite of numerous cardioprotective nutrients and if routinely incorporated in a healthy diet, population risk of CHD would therefore be expected to decrease markedly.


Nut consumption, vegetarian diets, ischemic heart disease risk, and all-cause mortality: evidence from epidemiologic studies.


Perhaps one of the most unexpected and novel findings in nutritional epidemiology in the past 5 y has been that nut consumption seems to protect against ischemic heart disease (IHD). Frequency and quantity of nut consumption have been documented to be higher in vegetarian than in nonvegetarian populations. Nuts also constitute an important part of other plant-based diets, such as Mediterranean and Asian diets. In a large, prospective epidemiologic study of Seventh-day Adventists in California, we found that frequency of nut consumption had a substantial and highly significant inverse association with risk of myocardial infarction and death from IHD. The Iowa Women's Health Study also documented an association between nut consumption and decreased risk of IHD. The protective effect of nuts on IHD has been found in men and women and in the elderly. Importantly, nuts have similar associations in both vegetarians and nonvegetarians. The protective effect of nut consumption on IHD is not offset by increased mortality from other causes. Moreover, frequency of nut consumption has been found to be inversely related to all-cause mortality in several population groups such as whites, blacks, and the elderly. Thus, nut consumption may not only offer protection against IHD, but also increase longevity.


Improved Diet Quality with Peanut Consumption.


Objective: To evaluate the diet quality of free-living men, women, and children choosing peanuts and peanut products.

Design: Using data reported in the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (CSFII/DHKS) from 1994–1996, food codes were used to sort respondents by use or nonuse of peanuts.

Subjects: A nationally representative sample of 4,751 men, 4,572 women, and 4,939 children (boys and girls, 2–19 yrs) who completed 2-day intake records.

Measures of Outcome: The two-sample t test was used to analyze differences between peanut users and nonusers for energy, nutrient intakes, Health Eating Index (HEI) scores, and body mass index (BMI).

Results: Peanut users (24% of CSFII/DHKS) had higher intakes (p < 0.001) of protein, total fat, polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), monounsaturated fat, (MUFA) (p < 0.01), fiber, vitamin A, vitamin E, folate, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and iron. Percent of energy from saturated fat was not significantly different for men, women or girls and was slightly lower (p < 0.01) for boys. Dietary cholesterol of peanut users was lower for all population groups; this decrease was significant for both men (p < 0.01) and children (p < 0.001). The HEI was calculated as a measure of overall nutrient profile of the diets and was significantly greater for peanut users (men 61.4, women, 65.1, children 66.8) compared to nonusers (men 59.9, women 64.1, children 64.7) for men (p = 0.0074) and children (p < 0.001). Energy intake was significantly higher in all population groups of peanut users (p < 0.001; boys: p < 0.01); however mean BMI for peanut users was lower for all gender/age categories (women: p < 0.05; children: p < 0.001).

Conclusions: These results demonstrate improved diet quality of peanut users, indicated by the higher intake of the micronutrients vitamin A, vitamin E, folate, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and iron and dietary fiber, and by the lower intake of saturated fat and cholesterol. Despite a higher energy intake over a two-day period, peanut consumption was not associated with a higher BMI.


Effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics.


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics.

DESIGN: Thirty-week, cross-over, intervention study. Participants were provided 2113±494 kJ/day (505±118 kcal/day) as peanuts for 8 weeks with no dietary guidance (free feeding¾FF), 3 weeks with instructions to add peanuts to their customary diet (addition¾ADD) and 8 weeks where peanuts replaced an equal amount of other fats in the diet (substitution¾SUB).

SUBJECTS: Fifteen, healthy, normal-weight (BMI of 23.3±1.8) adults, aged 33±9 y.

MEASUREMENTS: Dietary intake, appetitive indices, energy expenditure, body weight and hedonics.

RESULTS: During FF, peanut consumption elicited a strong compensatory dietary response (ie subjects compensated for 66% of the energy provided by the nuts) and body weight gain (1.0 kg) was significantly lower than predicted (3.6 kg; P<0.01). When customary dietary fat was replaced with the energy from peanuts, energy intake, as well as body weight, were maintained precisely. Participants were unaware that body weight was a research focus. Resting energy expenditure was increased by 11% after regular peanut consumption for 19 weeks (P<0.01). Chronic consumption of peanuts did not lead to a decline in pleasantness or hunger ratings for peanuts nor did it lead to any hedonic shift for selected snack foods with other taste qualities during any of the three treatments.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite being energy dense, peanuts have a high satiety value and chronic ingestion evokes strong dietary compensation and little change in energy balance.


Nuts, especially walnuts, have both antioxidant quantity and efficacy and exhibit significant potential health benefits.


Free and total (after basic hydrolysis) polyphenols in nine types of raw and roasted nuts and two types of peanut butter (54 commercial samples) were analyzed after methanol extraction by a single step Folin-Ciocalteu reagent using catechin as standard. Walnuts had the highest free and total polyphenols in both the combined raw and roasted samples. Total polyphenols in the nuts were significantly higher than free polyphenols. Roasting had little effect on either free or total polyphenols in nuts. Raw and roasted walnuts had the highest total polyphenols. The efficacy of raw and roasted nut antioxidants was assessed by measuring the ability of the free polyphenol nut extracts to inhibit the oxidation of lower density lipoproteins (LDL + VLDL). A nut polyphenol, catechin, was measured after binding of three nut extracts to lower density lipoproteins. Walnut polyphenols had the best efficacy among the nuts and also the highest lipoprotein-bound antioxidant activity. Based on USDA availability data, the per capita total polyphenols was 162 mg from nuts per day in 2008. This corresponds to 19% of the total polyphenols from fruits and vegetables, nuts, grains, oils and spices in the US diet. Nuts provided 158 mg of polyphenols per day to the European Union diet. Nuts are high in polyphenol antioxidants which by binding to lipoproteins would inhibit oxidative processes that lead to atherosclerosis in vivo. In human supplementation studies nuts have been shown to improve the lipid profile, increase endothelial function and reduce inflammation, all without causing weight gain. These qualities make nuts a nutritious healthy snack and food additive.


Nut consumption, weight gain and obesity: Epidemiological evidence.


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Short-term trials support that adding tree nuts or peanuts to usual diets does not induce weight gain. We reviewed the available epidemiological evidence on long-term nut consumption and body weight changes. We also report new results from the SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra") cohort.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Published epidemiologic studies with ≥1-yr follow-up were located. Two published reports from large cohorts (SUN and Nurses Health Study-2) showed inverse associations between frequency of nut consumption and long-term weight changes. A beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with tree nuts on waist circumference was reported after 1-yr follow-up in the first 1224 high-risk participants in the PREDIMED ("PREvencion DIeta MEDiterranea") trial. After assessing 11,895 participants of the SUN cohort, a borderline significant (p value for trend = 0.09) inverse association between baseline nut consumption and average yearly weight gain (multivariate-adjusted means = 0.32 kg/yr (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.42) and 0.24 (0.11-0.37) kg/yr for participants with no consumption and >4 servings/week, respectively) was found after a 6-yr follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of nuts was not associated with a higher risk of weight gain in long-term epidemiologic studies and clinical trials.
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Old 09-30-2009, 05:53 PM   #2
Paul Epstein
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Join Date: May 2009
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In conclusion, consumption of 50–100 g (1.5–3.5 servings) of nuts 5 times/wk as part of a heart-healthy diet with total fat content (high in mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids) of 35% of energy may significantly decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in normo- and hyperlipidemic individuals.

and they are delicious. Im sold.
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