Calories and carcinogenesis: lessons learned from 30 years of calorie restriction research.
Calorie restriction (CR) is arguably the most potent, broadly acting dietary regimen for suppressing the carcinogenesis process, and many of the key studies in this field have been published in Carcinogenesis. Translation of the knowledge gained from CR research in animal models to cancer prevention strategies in humans is urgently needed given the worldwide obesity epidemic and the established link between obesity and increased risk of many cancers. This review synthesizes the evidence on key biological mechanisms underlying many of the beneficial effects of CR, with particular emphasis on the impact of CR on growth factor signaling pathways and inflammatory processes and on the emerging development of pharmacological mimetics of CR. These approaches will facilitate the translation of CR research into effective strategies for cancer prevention in humans.