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-   -   Growth hormone, athletic performance, and aging. (http://www.catalystathletics.com/forum/showthread.php?t=5530)

Darryl Shaw 06-19-2010 04:23 AM

Growth hormone, athletic performance, and aging.

Growth hormone, athletic performance, and aging.

In 1513, the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León arrived in Florida to search for the fountain of youth. If he got any benefit from his quest, it was due to the exercise involved in the search.

Few men today believe in miraculous waters, but many, it seems, believe in the syringe of youth. Instead of drinking rejuvenating waters, they inject human growth hormone to slow the tick of the clock. Some are motivated by the claims of the "anti-aging" movement, others by the examples of young athletes seeking a competitive edge. Like Ponce de León, the athletes still get the benefit of exercise, while older men may use growth hormone shots as a substitute for working out. But will growth hormone boost performance or slow aging? And is it safe?

Human growth hormone: Up close and personal.

Growth hormone (GH) is a small protein that is made by the pituitary gland and secreted into the bloodstream. GH production is controlled by a complex set of hormones produced in the hypothalamus of the brain and in the intestinal tract and pancreas.

The pituitary puts out GH in bursts; levels rise following exercise, trauma, and sleep. Under normal conditions, more GH is produced at night than during the day. This physiology is complex, but at a minimum, it tells us that sporadic blood tests to measure GH levels are meaningless since high and low levels alternate throughout the day. But scientists who carefully measure overall GH production report that it rises during childhood, peaks during puberty, and declines from middle age onward.

GH acts on many tissues throughout the body. In children and adolescents, it stimulates the growth of bone and cartilage. In people of all ages, GH boosts protein production, promotes the utilization of fat, interferes with the action of insulin, and raises blood sugar levels. GH also raises levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).

Therapeutic use.

GH is available as a prescription drug that is administered by injection. GH is indicated for children with GH deficiency and others with very short stature. It is also approved to treat adult GH deficiency — an uncommon condition that almost always develops in conjunction with major problems afflicting the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, or both. The diagnosis of adult GH deficiency depends on special tests that stimulate GH production; simple blood tests are useless at best, misleading at worst.

Adults with bona fide GH deficiencies benefit from GH injections. They enjoy protection from fractures, increased muscle mass, improved exercise capacity and energy, and a reduced risk of future heart disease. But there is a price to pay. Up to 30% of patients experience side effects that include fluid retention, joint and muscle pain, carpal tunnel syndrome (pressure on the nerve in the wrist causing hand pain and numbness), and high blood sugar levels.

GH doping.

Adults who are GH deficient get larger muscles, more energy, and improved exercise capacity from replacement therapy. Athletes work hard to build their muscles and enhance performance. Some also turn to GH.

It's not an isolated problem. Despite being banned by the International Olympic Committee, Major League Baseball, the National Football League, and the World Anti-Doping Agency, GH abuse has tainted many sports, including baseball, cycling, and track and field. Competitive athletes who abuse GH risk disqualification and disgrace. What do they gain in return? And do they also risk their health?

Because GH use is banned and athletic performance depends on so many physical, psychological, and competitive factors, scientists have been unable to evaluate GH on the field. But they can conduct randomized clinical trials that administer GH or a placebo to healthy young athletes and then measure body composition, strength, and exercise capacity in the lab.

A team of researchers from California conducted a detailed review of 44 high-quality studies of growth hormone in athletes. The subjects were young (average age 27), lean (average body mass index 24), and physically fit; 85% were male. A total of 303 volunteers received GH injections, while 137 received placebo.

After receiving daily injections for an average of 20 days, the subjects who received GH increased their lean body mass (which reflects muscle mass but can also include fluid mass) by an average of 4.6 pounds. That's a big gain — but it did not translate into improved performance. In fact, GH did not produce measurable increases in either strength or exercise capacity. And the subjects who got GH were more likely to retain fluid and experience fatigue than were the volunteers who got the placebo.

If you were a jock in high school or college, you're likely to wince at the memory of your coach barking "no pain, no gain" to spur you on. Today, athletes who use illegal performance-enhancing drugs risk the pain of disqualification without proof of gain.

GH for aging.

Among its many biological effects, GH promotes an increase in muscle mass and a decrease in body fat. As men age, GH levels fall. During the same time span, muscle mass declines and body fat increases. And so, the theory goes, the way to arrest these effects of aging is to inject GH.

Similar claims have been made for other hormones that decline with age, including testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in men, and estrogen in women. Research shows that estrogen replacement does more harm than good in older women, and there is no solid evidence that testosterone and DHEA are safe and effective for healthy older men. But that has not stopped the growth of "anti-aging" and "regenerative medicine" clinics and Web sites.

Expensive injections of growth hormone are offered by many practitioners, even though the FDA has not approved the use of GH for anti-aging, body building, or athletic enhancement, and the marketing or distribution of the hormone for any of these purposes is illegal in the U.S. According to one estimate, 20,000 to 30,000 Americans used GH as "anti-aging" therapy in 2004 alone; according to another, 100,000 people received GH without a valid prescription in 2002.

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of GH in healthy older people, a team of researchers reviewed 31 high-quality studies that were completed after 1989. Each of the studies was small, but together they evaluated 220 subjects who received GH and 227 control subjects who did not get the hormone. Two-thirds of the subjects were men; their average age was 69, and the typical volunteer was overweight but not obese.

The dosage of GH varied considerably, and the duration of therapy ranged from two to 52 weeks. Still, the varying doses succeeded in boosting levels of IGF-1, which reflects the level of GH, by 88%.

As compared to the subjects who did not get GH, the treated individuals gained an average of 4.6 pounds of lean body mass, and they shed a similar amount of body fat. There was a slight drop in total cholesterol levels, but no significant changes in LDL ("bad") cholesterol, HDL ("good") cholesterol, triglycerides, aerobic capacity, bone density, or fasting blood sugar and insulin levels. But GH recipients experienced a high rate of side effects, including fluid retention, joint pain, breast enlargement, and carpal tunnel syndrome. The studies were too short to detect any change in the risk of cancer, but other research suggests an increased risk of cancer in general and prostate cancer in particular.

Beat the clock.

"Every man desires to live long," wrote Jonathan Swift, "but no man would be old." He was right, but the fountain of youth has proved illusory. And while more study is needed, GH does not appear to be either safe or effective for young athletes or healthy older men. But that doesn't mean you have to sit back and let Father Time peck away at you. Instead, use the time-tested combination of diet and exercise. Aim for a moderate protein intake of about .36 grams per pound of body weight; even big men don't need more than 65 grams (about 2¼ ounces) a day, though athletes and men recovering from illnesses or surgery might do well with about 20% more. Plan a balanced exercise regimen; aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise, such as walking, a day, and be sure to add strength training two to three times a week to build muscle mass and strength. You'll reduce your risk of many chronic illnesses, enhance your vigor and enjoyment of life, and — it's true — slow the tick of the clock.


Dan Bobba 06-23-2010 02:37 PM

is it true that hgh increases the size of the male "member"

Frank Needham 06-23-2010 08:03 PM

Ha, if it did there'd be a lot of BBrs who couldn't wear those gay looking thongs they prance around in....

John Alston 06-24-2010 05:03 AM

Maybe it just balances out their shriveled peas.

Jay Ashman 06-24-2010 06:35 AM

Dan, I had an old buddy who tried an experiment on himself, he injected HGH into his, you know... and he swore it made him bigger.

I will never try it but he swore it did...

Then again he was a strange one like to experiment on himself.

Dan Bobba 06-24-2010 09:16 AM

i heard a rumor somewhere along the way that it did. i would never want to actually take it though because i don't want to be big and angry with medical problems later in life. there is this spray though advertised online. i wonder what would happen if...

Matt Moore 05-17-2011 09:45 PM

I have read that HGH can also be released as a response to short intervals of fasting (24-48hrs), sometimes followed by a high intensity workout. Makes sense from paleo era stand point.
Good post.

John Alston 05-18-2011 08:30 AM

There are lots of products and training protocols that claim "X percentage of increase in GH release" - my question, assuming they are true (some seem to have some science behind them) is: is this increase part of a total increase in GH release/production or does it just shift the release time so your body is still making the same amount, you just get a spike from the training protocol ?

Steven Low 05-18-2011 10:23 AM

GH is released in the body in "pulsatile intervals" the biggest which occurs during initiation of slow wave sleep like somewhere an hour after you go to sleep. Around 2/3rds or so is released while you sleep with lesser amounts during the day obviously.

Chronic training has shown to depress GH levels (as with all other hormone levels except like cortisol and such -- hence a somewhat overreach/overtraining effect), but in general a training effect will increase GH release overall.

I think there's something which ties in GH release to increases in body temperature but I'm a bit fuzzy on the details now. Hence why higher intensity training may release more GH than lower intensity exercise such as cardio and whatnot.

Decreases in overall GH production and increases in cortisol production happen during normal senecesnce (e.g. the aging process) during sleep.

Regardless, since GH is a polypeptide I suppose it's a bit safer than the steroid hormones in regards to side effects and ability to screw up your body. Generally, fat soluble substances tend to exert larger effects on the body, but they tend to have bigger side effects if things get out of whack (see fat soluble vs. non fat soluble vitamins).

If you were going to dope performance, healing, or anti-aging or whatever I'd go with this over any type of cholesterol derived steroids.

Although vitamin D has shown so good effects in increasing muscle mass and strength as it's a seco-steroid (since it's produced from cholesterol) so that's another route you can take especially if you're deficient.

Not that I would recommend doping in any way or form.....

Dialing in training, sleep, nutrition, stress should tend to give better results anyway (unless you're already dialed in).

Grissim Connery 05-20-2011 10:20 AM


Originally Posted by Steven Low (Post 89705)
Regardless, since GH is a polypeptide I suppose it's a bit safer than the steroid hormones in regards to side effects and ability to screw up your body. Generally, fat soluble substances tend to exert larger effects on the body, but they tend to have bigger side effects if things get out of whack (see fat soluble vs. non fat soluble vitamins).

If you were going to dope performance, healing, or anti-aging or whatever I'd go with this over any type of cholesterol derived steroids.

I don't know if that's the best logic. Insulin is a polypeptide as well, and both the chronic and acute effect of insulin use can be life threatening.

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