Most of the items you listed are inflammatory markers although each works in different ways.
Homocystine for example has a normal low level in the blood but when levels increase beyond a certain point it is theorized that crystals of Hct can precipitate and damage the vascular lumen. Hct levels appear to increase if one has inadequate b-vitamins. A possible cause for the B-vitamin deficiency is over consumption of refined carbs as they require b-vitamins for their metabolism.
Lpa is a sub-fraction of LDL cholesterol and it is theorized to be a small, dense particle that has abnormal permeability in, again the vascular lumen, and some interaction between the Lpa molecule and the lumen causes damage and resultant lumen thickening.
C-reactive Protein is a direct measure of systemic inflammation. Frequently used to monitor infections, this marker is also indicitive of insulin resistance as elevated insulin levels increase Crp levels. It’s interesting to note that the people who wrote “Lights Out: Sleep, Sugar and Survival” make the point that sleep deprivation, and excessive carbs lead to autoimmunity, and inflammation.
Triglycerides are a direct measure of one’s insulin sensitivity. Low insulin sensitivity results in high circulating triglycerides. These molecules are then prone to oxidation and contributing to…damage to the vascular lumen!
This is a small sampling of factors that are suspected to be players in the pathogenesis of various forms of heart/vascular disease. High blood glucose levels, insulin insensitivity, and systemic inflammation are all interrelated factors. Dr. Eades has a good post on this regarding the Framingham study http://www.proteinpower.com/drmike/?p=292
I actually did some of the blood analysis on the follow-up studies when I was at the Fred Hutch Cancer Research Center. When I interviewed for the job I went out to lunch with everyone in the lab. I almost fell out of my chair when I noticed everyone ordered either salmon, chicken or beef with a side of veggies and a salad! No one in the lab was fat and when I asked about the nutritional choices they said they have monitored their own blood lipids/inflammatory markers for years an this was how you needed to eat if you wanted to be healthy. This looks like a good topic for the P-menu so we can get in and look more closely at some of this. Thanks for the question!