Thread: Heart Mass Gain
View Single Post
Old 05-22-2009, 10:06 AM   #4
Garrett Smith
Senior Member
Garrett Smith's Avatar
Join Date: Feb 2007
Location: Tucson, AZ
Posts: 4,326


Iowa wrestling study: weight loss and urinary profiles of collegiate wrestlers.

A longitudinal study was conducted with various members of the 1975 University of Iowa NCAA championship wrestling team to determine if excessive weight loss, accompanied by signs of dehydration, occurred at the college level of competition. Body weight changes from September to December indicated a mean loss of 6%, while skinfold totals (6 sites) changed from a mean of 58 mm to 37 mm. During a four-month period, mean weight losses of 10.2, 9.5, 8.0, 7.5 and 7.0 lbs occurred in intervals of 12, 4, 3, 2 and 1 day, respectively. Basal urines analyzed throughout the season usually contained 2-3 times the potassium excreted before the season started. Analyses of urines at various intervals during a 2-day time period prior to weigh-in showed a .003 increase in specific gravity, 160 mosm/1 increase in osmolarity, .10 decrease in pH, 45.3 mEq/1 decrease in Na+ concentration, and a 71.3 mEq/1 increase in K+ concentration which suggested that the wrestlers were dehydrated prior to competition. Total urinary electrolyte loss during the 2 days amounted to 3.7% of estimated total body Na+ stores and 3.0% of total body K+ stores. These data were similar to what had been reported for Iowa high school finalists and indicated that collegiate wrestlers were also competing while in a dehydrated state.

Applied physiology of amateur wrestling.

The general physiological profile of the successful wrestler is of one having high anaerobic power (mean range of 6.1 to 7.5 W/kg for arms; mean range of 11.5 to 19.9 W/kg for legs); high anaerobic capacity (range for arms 4.8 to 5.2 W/kg; range for legs 7.4 to 8.2 W/kg); high muscular endurance; average to above average aerobic power (range 52 to 63 ml/kg/min); average pulmonary function (range 1.90 to 2.02 L/kg/min for VEmax); normal flexibility; a high degree of leanness (range 3.7 to 13.0% fat) excluding heavyweights; and a somatotype that emphasises mesomorphy. Training methods include wrestling, and nonwrestling activities for increasing strength and power (i.e. resistance training), and to improve cardiovascular fitness (i.e. endurance training). Unfortunately, data on the isolated effects of wrestling on fitness and the type of training programme most effective for success in wrestling are scarce. The practice of weight loss is commonly used by wrestlers to enhance performance. Rapid weight loss has profound adverse effects on the wrestler's physiology but little effect on strength or anaerobic power performance as measured in the laboratory. In contrast, muscular endurance appears to be impaired by the rapid weight loss. Current research on weight loss and performance in wrestlers has taken 2 directions: (a) towards nutritional treatments to prevent suboptimal muscular endurance, and (b) towards the development of programmes to estimate minimal weight based on body composition techniques and thereby prevent weight reductions.

Physiological effects of a weight loss regimen practiced by college wrestlers.

The effects of weight loss (dehydration) techniques (which mimicked techniques used prior to actual competition) used by intercollegiate wrestlers on selected physiological parameters (strength, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, the lactate threshold (LT), and peak aerobic power) were examined in seven intercollegiate wrestlers. During the 36 h weight loss period, subjects lost 3.3 kg (4.9% body weight), all of which occurred during the 12 h prior to weigh-in, using exercise in a rubberized sweat suit. Weight loss resulted in a reduction in upper body but not lower body strength measures (peak torque and average work per repetition). Anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity were significantly reduced in a dehydrated state (81.4 kgm.s-1, normal weight; 63.9 kgm.s-1, weight loss; 1984.3 kgm.40 s-1, normal weight; 1791.4 kgm.40 s-1, weight loss). Analyses of treadmill data revealed the following: 1) velocity was decreased at LT (4.4%) and peak (6.5%) during weight loss (P less than 0.05); 2) VO2 peak was significantly reduced with weight loss (6.7%, P less than 0.05); 3) treadmill time to exhaustion was significantly reduced in the weight loss state (12.4%) (35.7 min, normal weight; 31.3 min, weight loss). It was concluded that typical wrestling weight loss techniques result in deleterious effects on strength, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, the lactate threshold, and aerobic power.
I don't think I'll even consider "cutting weight" for OL. The potential damage just isn't worth it.

Also, I'd ditch the milk idea, if you're trying to have better heart health.
Biological and Clinical Potential of a Palaeolithic Diet

Fat intake is not the only dietary factor that affects the atherosclerotic process in animal experiments. Many trials have shown that casein promotes atherosclerosis more than soy protein [43], and one trial suggested that meat proteins are less atherogenic than soy protein and casein [44]. Hence, meat may be less atherogenic than soy beans, low fat milk and high fat milk, in that order. The unfavourable impact of milk protein on serum cholesterol and atherosclerosis is commonly referred to as an effect of ‘animal protein’. However, the studies cited suggest that the term ‘animal protein’ is insufficiently specific and should be abandoned.
Garrett Smith NMD CSCS BS, aka "Dr. G" - Blood, Saliva, and Stool Testing
My radio show - The Path to Strength and Health
Garrett Smith is offline   Reply With Quote