i'm kinda back and forth about one of my doctor's respones to food. she seems both knowledgable in some areas and then she sometimes makes statements that i'm like "wtf, did she just say that?" i'm not the kinda guy to call somebody out in that situation, but i made mental notes. her and her assistant both seemed concerned when the IU's of my vitamins were in the thousands. i was thinking um yeah, that's not a big deal.
between a multivitamin and CLO:
D was about 1300 IU
A was about 19,000 IU
i doubt E or K affected me
now granted my food sources may have contributed more, but i don't always take my vitamins everyday, i was hardly consuming any dairy at that time, and i'm in cleveland (we literally just got sun). i doubt i passed the UL's with my food intake.
Vitamin D toxicity, policy, and science.
Departments of Nutritional Sciences, and Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration that is the threshold for vitamin D toxicity has not been established. Hypercalcemia is the hazard criterion for vitamin D. Past policy of the Institute of Medicine has set the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for vitamin D at 50 mug (2000 IU)/d, defining this as "the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risks of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population." However, because sunshine can provide an adult with vitamin D in an amount equivalent to daily oral consumption of 250 mug (10,000 IU)/d, this is intuitively a safe dose. The incremental consumption of 1 mug (40 IU)/day of vitamin D(3) raises serum 25(OH)D by approximately 1 nM (0.4 ng/ml). Therefore, if sun-deprived adults are to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations >75 nM (30 ng/ml), they will require an intake of more than the UL for vitamin D. The mechanisms that limit vitamin D safety are the capacity of circulating vitamin D-binding protein and the ability to suppress 25(OH)D-1-alpha-hydroxylase. Vitamin D causes hypercalcemia when the "free" concentration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is inappropriately high. This displacement of 1,25(OH)(2)D becomes excessive as plasma 25(OH)D concentrations become higher than at least 600 nM (240 ng/ml). Plasma concentrations of unmetabolized vitamin D during the first days after an acute, large dose of vitamin D can reach the micromolar range and cause acute symptoms. The clinical trial evidence shows that a prolonged intake of 250 mug (10,000 IU)/d of vitamin D(3) is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects in almost all individuals in the general population; this meets the criteria for a tolerable upper intake level.
Safety of <7500 RE (<25000 IU) vitamin A daily in adults with retinitis pigmentosa.
Sibulesky L, Hayes KC, Pronczuk A, Weigel-DiFranco C, Rosner B, Berson EL.
Foster Biomedical Research Laboratory, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, USA.
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation is being used successfully to treat some forms of cancer and the degenerative eye disease retinitis pigmentosa. The daily biological need for vitamin A is estimated to be 800 retinol equivalents (RE)/d (2667 IU/d) for adult women and 1000 RE/d (3300 IU/d) for adult men; doses > or = 7500 RE (> or = 25000 IU)/d are considered potentially toxic over the long term. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the safety in adults of long-term vitamin A supplementation with doses above the daily biological need but <7500 RE (<25000 IU)/d. DESIGN: Adults aged 18-54 y with retinitis pigmentosa but in generally good health (n = 146) were supplemented with 4500 RE (15000 IU) vitamin A/d for < or = 12 y (group A) and compared with a similar group (n = 149) that received 23 RE (75 IU)/d (trace group). Mean total consumption of vitamin A in group A was 5583 RE (18609 IU)/d (range: 4911-7296 RE/d, or 16369-24318 IU/d) and that in the trace group was 1053 RE (3511 IU)/d (range: 401-3192 RE/d, or 1338-10638 IU/d). RESULTS: Patients in group A showed an 8% increase in mean serum retinol concentration at 5 y and an 18% increase at 12 y (P < 0.001); no retinol value exceeded the upper normal limit (3.49 micromol/L, or 100 microg/dL). Mean serum retinyl esters were elevated approximately 1.7-fold at 5 y and remained relatively stable thereafter. No clinical symptoms or signs of liver toxicity attributable to vitamin A excess were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged daily consumption of <7500 RE (<25000 IU) vitamin A/d can be considered safe in this age group.