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Old 06-06-2009, 05:05 AM   #1
Darryl Shaw
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Default Effects of an Ad Libitum, High Carbohydrate Diet and Exercise on Insulin Action.

Quite an interesting study when you consider that the macronutrient ratio used (18% fat, 19% protein, 63% carbohydrate) is typical of most traditional asian diets.

Quote:
Effects of an Ad Libitum, High Carbohydrate Diet and Aerobic Exercise Training on Insulin Action and Muscle Metabolism in Older Men and Women

Abstract

Background. Previous studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise training and weight loss have independent effects on insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (ISGD). We hypothesized that ad libitum consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet would result in weight loss and improved ISGD, and that aerobic exercise training would facilitate greater improvements in ISGD compared with diet alone.

Methods. Older participants (13 women, 9 men; age = 66 ± 1 year) with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to an ad libitum diet alone (18% fat, 19% protein, 63% carbohydrate) or this diet plus aerobic exercise training (4 d/wk, 45 min/d, 80% VO2peak) for 12 weeks. ISGD, abdominal fat distribution, muscle glycogen, and glycogen synthase activity were assessed pre- and postintervention.

Results. Consumption of the diet resulted in significant weight loss and an improvement in ISGD. Consumption of the diet plus exercise training also resulted in weight loss and increased ISGD, but results were not significantly different from those in the diet-alone group. Mean abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue cross-sectional areas were smaller postintervention compared to baseline with no difference between groups. Exercise training and consumption of the diet increased muscle glycogen content (344.7 ± 21.3 to 616.7 ± 34.4 µmol·g–1) and decreased glycogen synthase activity (0.21 ± 0.02 to 0.13 ± 0.01) compared to the diet alone.

Conclusions. These results demonstrate that consumption of an ad libitum, high-carbohydrate diet alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training results in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, exercise combined with this diet appears to limit additional increases in insulin sensitivity due to muscle glycogen supercompensation with a concomitant adaptive response of glycogen synthase.
http://biomed.gerontologyjournals.or.../full/61/3/299
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Old 06-06-2009, 06:49 AM   #2
Gittit Shwartz
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Did they feed them mush? I don't see how they could control macronutrient proportions as closely as they claimed otherwise.

Other than that, the diet and exercise protocol didn't have to be good to improve health markers, only better than what they had previously been doing, yada yada yada.

In other words, I don't see how that study furthers anybody's understanding of diet or exercise.
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Old 06-06-2009, 07:46 AM   #3
Mike ODonnell
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all this proves is a high cardio lifestyle with high carbs does nothing special for weight loss unlike what ever person drinking a gatorade and doing a spin class daily think....nothing new.
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Old 06-08-2009, 06:49 AM   #4
Darryl Shaw
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Originally Posted by Mike ODonnell View Post
all this proves is a high cardio lifestyle with high carbs does nothing special for weight loss unlike what ever person drinking a gatorade and doing a spin class daily think....nothing new.
No, the study showed that an ad libitum high carbohydrate low fat diet improved insulin sensitivity in the elderly and the effect was seen regardless of whether or not they exercised.
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Old 06-08-2009, 07:19 AM   #5
George Mounce
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Darryl I don't see the point to your posting these articles. Do you want discussion or are you trying to prove something?

Guess what, go to any clinic working with 1) the morbidly obese, and 2) diabetics (Type 2 especially). Their carbohydrate levels are ridiculous.

The American Diabetic Association has moved towards the paleolithic diet after much research and much success with patients. There is a reason for this...lower total production of insulin, and in the case of Type 1 diabetics (one of which is my mother) results in an over 50% reduction in required insulin intake. You are going to find it very hard to convince any diabetic educator that eating more carbohydrates is going to help insulin levels...ever.

Guess what else, these people WERE GIVEN FOOD. They didn't eat their normal diet. I can make any research tell me what I want it to tell me as well when I am the one controlling all the variables.

Research like this is horrid in so many ways, and since I have to get to work I don't even want to waste the time typing out all the blaring errors in their methods.
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Old 06-08-2009, 09:55 AM   #6
Jay Cohen
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I'm pretty sure he's sponsored by the Carb Council.
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Old 06-09-2009, 04:50 AM   #7
Darryl Shaw
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Quote:
Originally Posted by George Mounce View Post
Darryl I don't see the point to your posting these articles. Do you want discussion or are you trying to prove something?
I post these articles because I find them interesting and think, perhaps mistakenly, that others may find them interesting too. If they spark debate that's fine if they don't *shrug* no big deal.

Why do I post them here then where I know my opinion (bias) goes against the norm? Because I know that if a study has some obvious flaw that I miss due to confirmation bias someone will leap on it to prove what an idiot I am. If I posted these articles on some of the other forums I use where people mostly agree with me this wouldn't happen. I also like the way that for the most part disagreements here are settled with reason, logic and science rather than personal attacks, a rare thing in my experience of the internet.

Quote:
Originally Posted by George Mounce
Guess what, go to any clinic working with 1) the morbidly obese, and 2) diabetics (Type 2 especially). Their carbohydrate levels are ridiculous.
I'm guessing that refined sugar and hfcs make up the bulk of their carb intake right (?) because you have to really work at it to become obese on a diet of unrefined carbs. Also having observed the way my dad who is obese and has type 2 diabetes eats I suspect most overweight diabetics eat quite a lot of fat too.

Quote:
Originally Posted by George Mounce
The American Diabetic Association has moved towards the paleolithic diet after much research and much success with patients. There is a reason for this...lower total production of insulin, and in the case of Type 1 diabetics (one of which is my mother) results in an over 50% reduction in required insulin intake. You are going to find it very hard to convince any diabetic educator that eating more carbohydrates is going to help insulin levels...ever.
You'll get no arguments from me about the benefits of the paleo diet except that my version of the diet is based on foods that would have been available to hunter-gatherers in Africa 100,000+ years ago rather than the diets of more modern N. American hunter-gatherers.

Quote:
Originally Posted by George Mounce
Guess what else, these people WERE GIVEN FOOD. They didn't eat their normal diet. I can make any research tell me what I want it to tell me as well when I am the one controlling all the variables.

Research like this is horrid in so many ways, and since I have to get to work I don't even want to waste the time typing out all the blaring errors in their methods.
I agree you can design a study that will prove almost anything you want but, like I said before, people here are usually quick to point out any flaws in a study if only to prove what an idiot I am for believing such nonsense.
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Old 06-08-2009, 06:38 AM   #8
Darryl Shaw
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Originally Posted by Gittit Shwartz View Post
Did they feed them mush? I don't see how they could control macronutrient proportions as closely as they claimed otherwise.

Other than that, the diet and exercise protocol didn't have to be good to improve health markers, only better than what they had previously been doing, yada yada yada.

In other words, I don't see how that study furthers anybody's understanding of diet or exercise.
They weighed and measured everything -

Quote:
The study was a block-randomized (stratified on gender), 12-week intervention trial. Each participant was provided a mixed diet (35% fat, 20% protein, 45% carbohydrate) during the 3-day baseline testing period to standardize dietary intake and maintain body weight.

Following baseline measures, participants were provided the ad libitum diet by our metabolic kitchen for 12 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diet (based on amounts of food consumed) was 18% fat, 19% protein, 63% carbohydrate, and 26 g of fiber/1000 kcal. The diet was designed to provide 150% of predicted energy requirements, and participants were instructed to consume foods ad libitum for the duration of the study. Participants were instructed to return any unconsumed food along with empty food containers; food consumption was measured by subtracting the weight of unconsumed food from the recorded weight of provided food. Dietary intake data over the course of the study did not significantly differ between groups (2250 ± 146 and 2413 ± 155 kcal/d for diet alone and diet plus exercise groups, respectively), as reported previously (12). Postintervention testing was performed with participants continuing to consume the diet (ad libitum) until completion of testing procedures.
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