Home   |   Contact   |   Help

Get Our Newsletter
Sign up for our free newsletter to get training tips and stay up to date on Catalyst Athletics, and get a FREE issue of the Performance Menu journal.

Go Back   Catalyst Athletics Forums > Nutrition > General Nutrition

Reply
 
Thread Tools Display Modes
Old 08-30-2009, 07:52 AM   #11
Mike Romano
New Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2009
Posts: 39
Default

And Darryl, those studies just support the fact that our ancestors consumed root veggies....not that they consumed grains or legumes or any non-paleo food, or that they limited their intake of meat.

Also, evidence that diseases of civilization are gone when there is enough food to go around? I cannot remember this being covered in a SINGLE anthro class. No, agriculture generally equated to health problems, regardless of the individual circumstances.

Finally, in the last paragraph or so, you mention that you don't really believe that humans cannot eat grain without health issues, and that 10,000 years might be enoug to evolve out of it....but then you say that we must disregard the diets of the hunter gatherers the 30000 years before that, because we have not evolved enough! While I do dispute the dates you listed, please clarify your reasoning here....
Mike Romano is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 09-04-2009, 06:54 AM   #12
Darryl Shaw
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Posts: 697
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike Romano View Post
haha don't worry steven, already got my diet figured out...used to try and "cut" for bodybuilding purposes with the diet Darryl proposes, and I got skinny-fat. With Paleo, I have no such issues. Just like debating the theory, because it is so interesting that there are so many viewpoints.
Okay, first I should clarify that I'm not trying to propose any particular diet in this thread, I'm just thinking what if.......

Second you say that you eat "paleo" but could you clarify what you mean by that? The reason I ask is because when I say paleo diet I'm referring specifically to the foods and nutrition of paleolithic hominids in Africa 50,000+ years ago but many others, particulary on the Crossfit boards, seem to have a different ideas about what that means.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike Romano View Post
And Darryl, those studies just support the fact that our ancestors consumed root veggies....not that they consumed grains or legumes or any non-paleo food, or that they limited their intake of meat.
I didn't suggest that paleo man limited his meat intake however I would suggest that his environment restricted his meat intake along with the propensity for his intended meat intake to run away whenever possible and this placed a natural limit on meat consumption and of course animal fat intakes would be low because wild game on the African continent is extremely lean. If memory serves in Deadly Harvest by Geoff Bond the author states that the average daily meat intake of the !kung san is ~150g/day and total animal soure foods are ~225g/d, equivalent to one medium to large steak per day in other words, and this relatively small amount of animal source foods would more than meet daily protein requirements even without the protein provided by the considerable amount of mongongo nuts and other plant foods eaten daily.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike Romano
Also, evidence that diseases of civilization are gone when there is enough food to go around? I cannot remember this being covered in a SINGLE anthro class. No, agriculture generally equated to health problems, regardless of the individual circumstances.
I disagree, there are many examples of thriving rural agriculture based societies throughout history on all continents that did fine as long as there was sufficient food to go around with Japan and Okinawa specifcally being a perfect examples. of this

Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike Romano
Finally, in the last paragraph or so, you mention that you don't really believe that humans cannot eat grain without health issues, and that 10,000 years might be enoug to evolve out of it....but then you say that we must disregard the diets of the hunter gatherers the 30000 years before that, because we have not evolved enough! While I do dispute the dates you listed, please clarify your reasoning here....
The reason I'm starting to rethink the issue of grains in human health is because grains are merely one of the more recently introduced sources of starchy carbohydrates in our diet. Starch has played a central role in the diets of hominids for many hundreds of thousands of years, even Chimps dig up and eat root and tubers (link), so there's nothing uniquely human about this trait, it's a primate thing. What's unique about humans though is our ability to exploit and thrive on wide variety of starchy carbohydrates and it's this adaptability that's been central to our success as a species not our ability to hunt meat or find reliable sources of dietary fats.

How does this relate to the Tarahumara diet then? Well clearly theirs is a starch based diet that's low in fat and animal protein and although the type of starch consumed is different from that eaten by paleolithic hunter-gatherers in Africa 50,000+ years ago that may be irrelevant because they're simply following a dietary pattern that's been the norm for our species throughout most of our history ie. plant based, high in starchy carbohydrates with low but adequate amounts of animal protein and fats.
Darryl Shaw is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 09-06-2009, 12:16 PM   #13
Mike Romano
New Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2009
Posts: 39
Default

Yes.....but grains are farcry from the types of starches you mentioned. Many sources put daily carbohydrate estimates much lower than fat, and slightly higher than protein. Will work on finding these after I finish work.

Another study that shows big game was hunted earlier than you claim:
(w/fs) http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/32462007...cience/from/ET
Mike Romano is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 09-06-2009, 08:32 PM   #14
Derek Weaver
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Nov 2007
Posts: 2,642
Default

I'm enjoying this debate. carry on.
__________________
Quote:
And if you don't think kettleball squat cleans are difficult, I say, step up to the med-ball
- CJ Kim
Derek Weaver is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 09-08-2009, 06:54 AM   #15
Darryl Shaw
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Posts: 697
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike Romano View Post
Yes.....but grains are farcry from the types of starches you mentioned.
It's a common misconception that the starchy roots and tubers that were staple foods for the majority of paleolithic hunter-gatherers could just be dug up roasted and eaten. Many of them contained high levels of toxins that required some very creative processing before they could be eaten safely. Cassava for example is a staple food for millions of people around the world today yet it can contain as much as 1g/kg of cyanide; process carefully and you've got lunch get it wrong and.......

So maybe the adoption of grains as a staple food wasn't that big a deal really as they provided a steady supply of calories with no obvious health risks. Also while it's undeniably true that grains are not a natural part of the human diet the same can be said for cassava so all we did really was trade one source of processed starchy carbohydrates for another. They both carried some health risks but thanks to our genes we're able to digest almost any starch and this change in our diet certainly caused us fewer health problems than would have been the case if we'd replaced starchy carbohydrates with fattier meats.

Anyway, to get back to the Tarahumara my hypothesis is simply that regardless of where their staple starchy carbs come from their low saturated fat intake is probably closer to what was the norm for our species before we became proficient hunters and that the increase in hunting and meat consumption that occurred in our recent history although neccessary for our survival causes us some degree of harm.

I should make it clear at this point in order to avoid any pointless arguments that I'm not advocating a vegetarian diet and I think that vegans are misguided idiots, all I'm suggesting is that the Tarahumara's low saturated fat and animal protein intake may be more appropriate for our species than the higher saturated fat and protein intakes that have become the norm in more recent times.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike Romano
Many sources put daily carbohydrate estimates much lower than fat, and slightly higher than protein. Will work on finding these after I finish work.
I'd be interested in seeing your sources but in the meantime you may find this study interesting -

Relating Chimpanzee Diets to Potential Australopithecus Diets.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike Romano
Another study that shows big game was hunted earlier than you claim:
(w/fs) http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/32462007...cience/from/ET
I don't dipute the fact that humans hunted for hundreds of thousands of years before adopting what we now consider to be the modern hunter-gatherer lifestyle ~30,000 years ago it's just that it was more an opportunistic part of a scavenging lifestyle than the organised hunts of later hominds. The fact that we engaged in hunting is hardly surprising though given that chimpanzees are incredibly efficient hunters and even our free-loving cousins the bonobos engage in cooperative hunting (link), so this type of hunting behaviour is just a Hominini thing.

One question about that report on evidence that meat was butchered though; did they find evidence that the meat was scavenged or hunted? The reason I ask is because it's quite common to find that tool marks on bones from around that time overlay the tooth marks of predators and this usually indicates that the meat was scavenged rather than hunted.

Cooperative hunting and meat sharing 400–200 kya at Qesem Cave, Israel.

Last edited by Darryl Shaw : 06-17-2011 at 03:11 AM. Reason: typo
Darryl Shaw is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 09-09-2009, 08:08 AM   #16
Mike Romano
New Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2009
Posts: 39
Default

from my understanding there are some theories that an agricultural lifestyle was originally adapted only because grains elicited an opiate-like response. Of course, they were forced to come up with ways to consume other starchy products, like fermenting soy and soaking said grains for several days....but that still doesn't change the fact that, as a whole, agriculture created societies that were incredibly sick compared to previous ones.

http://membres.lycos.fr/xbeluga/orig...riculture.html w/fs

Article is about why humans adapted, and then stuck with agriculture. Hint: it is not because they were healthier for it.

Where does this inference come from that starches are healthier than fatty meats?

And back to the Tarahumara....from the studies that I posted, it is debatable that they are healthy. Heart murmurs from running, signs of malnourishment....are these really ideal states? How are we defining "healthy"? As the ability to run 100 miles at a clip? If that is the case........

btw, getting access to that article in a second from my school's server
Mike Romano is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 09-09-2009, 08:20 AM   #17
Mike ODonnell
Senior Member
 
Mike ODonnell's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2006
Posts: 3,596
Default

I always liked this article on a mummy from ancient Egypt:
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/27/wo...ummy.html?_r=1

Quote:
Further CT scans led physicians to conclude that the woman was about 50 when she died. She was overweight and had bad teeth. She probably had diabetes and died of bone cancer, which had spread through her body.
Considering the diet in Egypt was heavily grain based in bread/beer (being close to the Nile river to support such agriculture)....doesn't speak well for a "grain" based society and it's health.
__________________
Fitness Spotlight
The IF Life
Mike ODonnell is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 09-11-2009, 06:53 AM   #18
Darryl Shaw
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Posts: 697
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike Romano View Post
from my understanding there are some theories that an agricultural lifestyle was originally adapted only because grains elicited an opiate-like response. Of course, they were forced to come up with ways to consume other starchy products, like fermenting soy and soaking said grains for several days....but that still doesn't change the fact that, as a whole, agriculture created societies that were incredibly sick compared to previous ones.

http://membres.lycos.fr/xbeluga/orig...riculture.html w/fs

Article is about why humans adapted, and then stuck with agriculture. Hint: it is not because they were healthier for it.
Interesting stuff. I was familliar with the theory that grains might originally have been farmed to make beer but I hadn't heard they might have been grown because they contained opioid like substances before.

Anyway, I don't dispute the fact that human health suffered following the agricultural revolution but I believe that was the result of societal changes rather than the grains themselves. After all over billion asians eat grain based diets today and those who stick with their traditional diet rarely develop any of the "diseases of civilization".

Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike Romano
Where does this inference come from that starches are healthier than fatty meats?
Atherosclerosis in the Masai, Inuits developing atherosclerosis and osteoporosis, the association between animal protein and saturated fat intakes and CVD, overweight/obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes and various cancers compared with the low incidence of these diseases in vegetarians, vegans and ethnic groups who traditionally eat a plant based diet high in starchy carbohydrates.

EDITORIAL: Plant-based diets: what should be on the plate?

Associations of whole-grain, refined-grain, and fruit and vegetable consumption with risks of all-cause mortality and incident coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

The effects of a whole grain–enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome.

Our basic physiology and nutritional requirements were established long before we became proficient hunters and our bodies like those of all other primates are designed to perform optimally on a mostly plant based diet.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike Romano
And back to the Tarahumara....from the studies that I posted, it is debatable that they are healthy. Heart murmurs from running, signs of malnourishment....are these really ideal states? How are we defining "healthy"? As the ability to run 100 miles at a clip? If that is the case........
According to the 1973-4 study the Tarahumara's tradtional diet was "generally of high nutritional quality" and they were found to be in good health. As for their cardiovascular health I refer you to this paper (link) where it is reported that some Tarahumara runners had a diastolic pressure of zero during and immediately after a race. Now I have no idea if that's normal for ultra-endurance athletes but I've never heard of anyone having a diastolic pressure that low before in fact I thought you had to be dead before your diastolic pressure could get down to zero so maybe someone better qualified then me would like to comment on what this says about their cardiovascular health.


Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike Romano
btw, getting access to that article in a second from my school's server
Cool. Did it say whether or not there were any tooth mark on those bones?

Last edited by Darryl Shaw : 09-14-2009 at 05:41 AM. Reason: typo
Darryl Shaw is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 09-12-2009, 02:35 PM   #19
Mike Romano
New Member
 
Join Date: Feb 2009
Posts: 39
Default

didn't have time to check out the first study, but the second study says that meat consumption was correlated with high consumption of refined grains. Of course, compared to a diet containing refined grains, the whole grains group, consuming unprocessessed foods, will be healthier, and in general lead a healthier style of life! The third study compares whole grains to refined grains....... Not sure that this says anything about meat intake.
Mike Romano is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 09-14-2009, 06:16 AM   #20
Darryl Shaw
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Posts: 697
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike Romano View Post
didn't have time to check out the first study, but the second study says that meat consumption was correlated with high consumption of refined grains. Of course, compared to a diet containing refined grains, the whole grains group, consuming unprocessessed foods, will be healthier, and in general lead a healthier style of life! The third study compares whole grains to refined grains....... Not sure that this says anything about meat intake.
I included links to those studies in order to show that grains do not cause any significant health problems indeed they seem to be associated with good overall health. I believe this demonstrates that the health problems that came with the introduction of agriculture were largely due to societal changes rather than the change to a grain based diet.

Anyway we seem to have gone a little off topic here when what I've been trying to discuss is the fact that Tarahumara's dietary cholesterol is correlated with their serum cholesterol. My hypothesis being that regardless of their neolithic corn and beans diet their low saturated fat and animal protein intakes are similar to what would have been the norm for our species for millions of years before we became proficent hunters and this study seems to support my theory as it shows that the further back in our history you look the greater the cholesterol lowering effect of the diet.

EDIT: Sorry but there seems to be some problem with the link so I'm going to copy the full text in case it stops working again.

Quote:
The Garden of Eden: Plant-Based Diets, The Genetic Drive to Store Fat and Conserve Cholesterol, and Implications for Epidemiology in the 21st Century


Jenkins, David J. A.; Kendall, Cyril W. C.

Author Information

From the *Clinical Nutrition & Risk Factor Modification Center; the †Department of Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and the ‡Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Correspondence: David J. A. Jenkins, Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, 61 Queen St. East, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5C 2T2. E-mail: cyril.kendall@utoronto.ca.


For most of the evolution of the hominoids (apes and humans), it seems likely that we depended on plant-based (vegetarian) diets1-5-very high in fiber, low in saturated fats, lacking in cholesterol, with carbohydrate in dilute form, rich in micronutrients and phytochemicals, and with very low energy density. The gibbon split from our clade over 20 million years ago. The orangutan departed 15 million years ago. The final break occurred 5 to 7 million years ago with the shift in tectonic plates that created the Rift Valley and sent gorilla, chimpanzee, and human to follow their separate paths of development. The gibbon, orangutan, and gorilla, and to a large extent the chimpanzee, continue with their plant-based diets.

Humans are the odd men out. They left the jungle and colonized the savannah, they gathered plant materials for subsistence, and it has been suggested that they followed the big cats and other carnivores to compete with the jackal for the carrion.6,7 Approximately 2.5 million years ago, Homo habilis (handy man) developed stone tools from which the Acheulian hand ax developed (a flat pear-shaped cutting instrument). This all-purpose Swiss army knife allowed carrion skulls and long bones to be opened for brain and marrow-valuable sources of fat in a calorie-poor environment. With the further evolution of stone implements, most recently in the Paleolithic period, large-scale hunting became possible, and meat intake is hypothesized to have been high.8 However, the species reductions and extinctions that followed successful hunting brought on the Neolithic agricultural revolution 10,000 years ago; for the first time, starch became a major dietary staple9 and allowed our species numbers to multiply and enjoy a measure of security and affluence. With this advance came diabetes, described first by the ancient Egyptians. Since then, the industrial revolution and the industrialization of food production and distribution has fulfilled human needs for energy conservation (sloth) and abundance of food (gluttony). All these advances have taken place through increasingly rapid evolution of our tools, machines, and devices without corresponding evolution of the human genome.

We are therefore still programmed to store energy effectively. In an age of inactivity and abundance, we are increasingly obese. We are programmed to maintain our blood glucose levels even in starvation; thus, in affluence, we are increasingly diabetic. We are programmed to synthesize cholesterol for a low-calorie environment when there was an absence of saturated fat and dietary cholesterol. With our contemporary dietary pattern, half our middle-aged population have high blood cholesterol levels and could benefit from statins, currently the most efficacious class of drugs.
So overwhelming are these metabolic problems of 21st century civilization that we asked what effect a primitive diet might have on the biochemical indices of modern man.

Back to Top | Article Outline

RECONSTRUCTED SIMIAN AND NEOLITHIC DIETS

We therefore decided to reconstruct diets representing earlier phases in human evolution, feed them to contemporary humans for 2-week periods, and determine their physiological effects.10 We selected to study 2 periods. One diet might have been eaten in the Miocene era, 4 to 7 million years ago. At that time, the range of foods eaten by our human ancestors was probably not very different from that of contemporary great apes, whose genetic makeup is possibly no more than 2% to 3% different from modern humans.11 This first diet consisted of large amounts of leafy vegetables, nuts (almonds and hazelnuts), and fruit, some tropical, but all purchased in local grocery stores. Theoretically, all these foods could be eaten raw but the majority of vegetables were eaten cooked. The diet was effectively devoid of any significant amount of starch. This diet was compared for effect on serum cholesterol with 2 current diets. First was a high-starch Neolithic-like diet, low in saturated fat and high in oats, barley, whole grain cereals, and dried legumes, with low-fat dairy as the source of animal protein. The second diet was a modern therapeutic diet (NCEP step 2 diet)-very low in saturated fat and dietary cholesterol and with a similar macronutrient profile to the Simian Miocene diet.

The major feature of the Simian diet was the large volume and the length of time spent eating. Considerable pressure had to be brought to bear on the subjects to ensure they ate all their food and did not lose weight. The foods were palatable, but the volume of 5.5 kg/d for a 70-kg man was excessive and the time taken to eat this volume (8 or more hours per day) was a further limitation. At the end of the 2-week diet periods of weight maintenance, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was reduced on the Simian diet by 33%, on the Neolithic diet by 23%, and on the therapeutic diet by 7% (Fig. 1). Perhaps more importantly, the respective LDL:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios were reduced by 24%, 12%, and 5%.

The cholesterol reductions on the Simian diet were similar to the reductions achieved with the first-generation statins. Bile acid losses reached 1 g/d in the men, a 4-fold increase over the therapeutic diet. Analysis of the diet for components that might alter cholesterol metabolism showed that the Simian diet provided approximately 1 g of plant sterols daily, 145 g of fiber, and 92 g of vegetable protein and on average over 70 g almonds or hazelnuts per day. The first 2 components would have reduced cholesterol and bile acid absorption and thus increased fecal steroid loss12-14; the vegetable proteins would have reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis15 as evidenced by reduced urinary mevalonic acid output. The nuts would have provided monounsaturated fats, vegetable protein, and plant sterols, all of which would tend to lower serum cholesterol. These diets would be predicted to upregulate LDL receptors.16,17

This study suggested that serum cholesterol levels were likely to have been low throughout the course of human evolution and that reintroduction of foods containing cholesterol-lowering components might reduce the current apparent dependency on drugs for cholesterol control in the 21st century and beyond.
In relation to obesity, the volume of the food that had to be eaten on the Miocene/simian diet, was a clear indication that overconsumption would not be a problem and indicated the importance of food volume in appetite control. Furthermore, the time spent eating would pose a further major barrier to overconsumption.

The implications of these findings for current epidemiologic research are many. Food volume, eating time, and the percentage of calories derived from plant foods deserve to be documented carefully. Physical activity remains a key variable. In the long run, perhaps the most important issue in the epidemiologic debate will be how to both preserve human health and promote a healthy environment in which the fast-dwindling numbers of our great ape cousins can also share.

Back to Top | Article Outline

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

DAVID JENKINS is a professor in the Departments of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, a staff physician in the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, and the Director of the Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital. CYRIL KENDALL is a Research Associate in the Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, and the Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St. Michael's Hospital, and also an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Pharmacy at the University of Saskatchewan. They are currently running clinical studies on the effect of diet in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity.

Back to Top | Article Outline

REFERENCES

1. Milton K. Nutritional characteristics of wild primate foods: do the diets of our closest living relatives have lessons for us? Nutrition. 1999;15:488-498.
Cited Here... | PubMed | CrossRef


2. Popovich DG, Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, et al. The western lowland gorilla diet has implications for the health of humans and other hominoids. J Nutr. 1997;127:2000-2005.
Cited Here... | PubMed


3. Cousins D. A review of the diets of captive gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Acta Zool Pathol Antverp. 1976;66:91-100.
Cited Here... | PubMed


4. Kay R. Diets of early Miocene African hominoids. Nature. 1977;44:628-630.
Cited Here... | PubMed | CrossRef


5. Milton K. Primate diets and gut morphology. Implications for hominid evolution. In: Harris M, Boss EB, eds. Food and Nutrition: Toward a Theory of Human and Food Habits. Philadelphia: Temple University Press; 96-116.
Cited Here...


6. Cordain L, Watkins BA, Florant GL, et al. Fatty acid analysis of wild ruminant tissues: evolutionary implications for reducing diet-related chronic disease. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56:181-191.
Cited Here... | PubMed | CrossRef


7. Cordain L, Miller JB, Eaton SB, et al. Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71:682-692.
Cited Here... | PubMed


8. Eaton SB, Konner M. Paleolithic nutrition. A consideration of its nature and current implications. N Engl J Med. 1985;312:283-289.
Cited Here... | PubMed


9. Cordain L. Cereal grains: humanity's double-edged sword. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1999;84:19-73.
Cited Here... | PubMed


10. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Popovich DG, et al. Effect of a very-high-fiber vegetable, fruit, and nut diet on serum lipids and colonic function. Metabolism. 2001;50:494-503.
Cited Here... | PubMed | CrossRef


11. Kaessmann H, Paabo S. The genetical history of humans and the great apes. J Intern Med. 2002;251:1-18.
Cited Here... | View Full Text | PubMed | CrossRef


12. Kay RM, Truswell AS. Effect of citrus pectin on blood lipids and fecal steroid excretion in man. Am J Clin Nutr. 1977;30:171-175.
Cited Here... | PubMed


13. Jenkins DJ, Wolever TM, Rao AV, et al. Effect on blood lipids of very high intakes of fiber in diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:21-26.
Cited Here... | PubMed | CrossRef


14. Lees AM, Mok HY, Lees RS, et al. Plant sterols as cholesterol-lowering agents: clinical trials in patients with hypercholesterolemia and studies of sterol balance. Atherosclerosis. 1977;28:325-338.
Cited Here... | PubMed | CrossRef


15. Kurowska EM, Carroll KK. Effect of high levels of selected dietary essential amino acids on hypercholesterolemia and down-regulation of hepatic LDL receptors in rabbits. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1126:185-191.
Cited Here... | PubMed


16. Lovati MR, Manzoni C, Canavesi A, et al. Soybean protein diet increases low density lipoprotein receptor activity in mononuclear cells from hypercholesterolemic patients. J Clin Invest. 1987;80:1498-1502.
Cited Here... | PubMed | CrossRef


17. Baum JA, Teng H, Erdman JW Jr, et al. Long-term intake of soy protein improves blood lipid profiles and increases mononuclear cell low-density-lipoprotein receptor messenger RNA in hypercholesterolemic, postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:545-551.
Cited Here... | PubMed

© 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
http://journals.lww.com/epidem/Fullt...netic .3.aspx
Darryl Shaw is offline   Reply With Quote
Reply


Thread Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

vB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Forum Jump


All times are GMT -7. The time now is 05:39 AM.

Powered by vBulletin Version 3.6.2
Copyright ©2000 - 2014, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
Subscribe to our Newsletter


Receive emails with training tips, news updates, events info, sale notifications and more.
ASK GREG

Submit your question to be answered by Greg Everett in the Performance Menu or on the website

Submit Your Question
WEIGHTLIFTING TEAM

Catalyst Athletics is a USA Weightlifting team of competitive Olympic-style weightlifters with multiple national team medals.

Read More
Olympic Weightlifting Book
Catalyst Athletics
Contact Us
About
Help
Newsletter
Products & Services
Gym
Store
Seminars
Weightlifting Team
Performance Menu
Magazine Home
Subscriber Login
Issues
Articles
Workouts
About the Program
Workout Archives
Exercise Demos
Text Only
Instructional Content
Exercise Demos
Video Gallery
Free Articles
Free Recipes
Resources
Recommended Books & DVDs
Olympic Weightlifting Guide
Discussion Forum
Weight Conversion Calculator